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Naval Postgraduate School - The Zefra Scenario

Background for the Analytic Wargaming Course

Military Leader of the People's Liberation Armed Militia (PLAM) (Truscan)

The situation is fluid. Just a couple of months ago, Zefra elected a new President. But this was an illegitmate election process. The previous administration did not allow international observers. Our own Truscan observers claimed that there was fraud on a massive scale. How can anyone believe that a nation that is 75% Truscan would freely elect a Bongo to be our new president?

The last hope of the Truscan people is the intervention of the United Nations. We now have a UN-backed coalition moving into the area to deal with instability in Zefra. One way or another, we need this coalition force to take action against the Bongo oppressors. If we have to create insidents to encourage this, we will do so.

Beyond engaging the UN-backed coalition, we must create incidents that will draw other international players into our conflict -- particularly the United States. We are fighting for democracy in Zefra and who better to have on our side that the leader of the free world.

As one of the most respected and feared leaders of the Truscan community, you feel it is your duty to the Truscan tribes to defend them in any way you can. The illegal Bongo-led administration is in power only due to the sham elections. Under Bongo leadership, criminal behavior has been permitted, even encouraged. Human rights violations abound. Our women have been raped, Truscan businesses have been looted, and innocent Truscan civilians injured or killed by rampaging Bongos. This must stop!

Law enforcement authorities in Zefra simply support Bongo activity and allow violence by Bongo tribes to get out of hand. Already the developing tourist industry in Zefra is failing as international visitors are finding safer beaches elsewhere in the South Pacific. Under Bongo leadership, our economy is on the brink of collapse with Truscans suffering the most... and all because a few malcontents (the Bongos) are violently attacking our people.

Typical of Bongo duplicity, they have exploited a relationship with the current regime in Beijing. The Bongo-controlled administration of Zefra has been, directly or indirectly, the beneficiary of Chinese technology. We believe there are factions among the Bongos that may be able to exploit some of the technology: putting some of the nuclear waste together with a tactical ballistic missile makes a very potent dirty bomb. Members of the Zefra Association (ZA) seem to be behind this.

Objectives

We seek freedom for all members of our Truscan tribes. We demand democracy in Zefra!

Ensure that the illegal elections are declared invalid and new and fair elections are held where the majority (the Truscans) can have the democratic government they deserve.

Bongos should be put in their place... those who survive.

Rid Zefra of the ongoing cronyism of the Bongos -- it has been a scourge on our country for decades.

Criteria for Decision Making

Choose what is best for the Truscans of Zefra.

Choose measures that will place the Bongos of Zefra, and particularly the President and Administration, in a bad light -- they deserve it!

Choose options where media coverage with show the innocence of Truscans and the duplicity of the Bongos.

Find means to discredit Bongo leaders. Use whatever evidence that can be found or manufactured to put these criminals away for good!

When there are opportunities, take measures to motivate the UN-led coalition forces to move against the Bongo oppressors.

The Zefra Scenario

Read on for a summary. Details are in the full Zefra Scenario.

Geopolitical Context Map of Geographic Factors

Map of the Geopolitical Context

Zefra and Daloon share the island home called Capricornia. International airline routes crisscross Zefra and Daloon -- Beijing to Auckland, Seoul to Wellington, Honolulu to Sydney. Most commercial shipping traffic crossing the Coral Sea passes along the coastlines of Zefra and Daloon.

Time Line -- Currently it is May, 2020

On the island of Capricornia lie the nations of Zefra (to the North) and Daloon (to the South). Since colonial days, these two nations have a mostly hostile relationship. The Zefran Civil War caused many problems before it ended in 2009.

In Zefra, the Bongo ethnic group runs the government and most commercial activity, although it represents only about 25% of the population. The new president of Zefra is from one of the Bongo tribes. The Truscan ethnic group is in the majority (about 75% of the population) but has largely been dominated by the Bongos.

Timeline of Zefran History

The civil war finally ended when the UN brokered a peace agreement that created an autonomous region under Peoples Liberation Movement/ Peoples Liberation Armed Malitia control within Zefra but adjacent to its border with Daloon. The PLM is a political group for Truscans and the PLAM is the military arm associated with the PLM.

The United Nations

The Security Council of the United Nations authorized a coalition force to deal with problems in Zefra. Called the Combined Joint Task Force Zefra (CJTFZ), this force is under British command and includes military personnel and equipment from various nations including Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. There are no US personnel in the coalition force: a side agreement between US and China required that the UN force would not include US forces, otherwise China was prepared veto the authorization of the force by the Security Council.

Zefra Association (ZA)

The ZA started as a government-sponsored Bongo nationalist militia. The ZA has been associated with atrocities committed on Truscans, and the Zefran government claims it has no control over the ZA.

Nuclear Technology and Ballistic Missiles

There were audits in December 2019 of spent-fuel waste from two Chinese-built nuclear sites in Zefra that suggested a considerable amount of high-grade waste (highly toxic radioactive material) was unaccounted for, as much as 140 kg.

Since Zefra has also been acquiring ballistic missile technology from North Korea, there is a potentially deadly combination of nuclear waste and a tactical ballistic missile to create a potent dirty bomb.

Peoples' Liberation Movement (PLM)/ Peoples' Liberation Armed Militia(PLAM)

The PLM is a political movement for a Truscan opposition group seeking autonomy within Zefra. The PLAM is the armed component and the dominant opposition group in Zefra. The PLAM has frequently been linked to brutal attacks on Bongos throughout Zefra.

Following the end of the Zefran Civil War, the PLAM has become independent of the PLM. It became a home for Truscans who wanted to take the fight to their Bongo neighbours, by any means available. In the last few years, with a number of bloody stains on its reputation, the PLAM has frequently been described as a rogue element.

Daloon

Daloon In its own response, the government of Daloon sought to secure its borders. Several European nations provided some limited assistance to Daloon in the form of military training assistance teams and a small amount of surplus military equipment.

China

There are many Chinese nationals in both Zefra and Daloon. In Zefra there are Chinese engineers at the nuclear power plants. There are also Chinese Air Force personnel on a couple of Zefran air bases where they conduct loading and unloading of transport aircraft that have been flying in with support for small-unit training that Chinese ground forces have been conducting in Zefra.

The "South Pacific" Task Force of the Chinese Peoples' Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) are cruising in the general area. They were recently making peaceful port visits to friendly nations. Now they are concentrating on the problems of Zefra.

The United States

The President is running for re-election in November 2020 and needs to consider operations in the area very carefully. The South Asia and Pacific Command (SAPCOM) is the combatant command responsible for the area. The SAPCOM commander provides military advice to the National Command Authorities on how to handle military activity in and around Zefra.

The Media

Journalists around the world have been focused on Zefra for some months now. Images of crying children in refugee camps and sites of atrocities have been been front page news. CNN, Fox, CBS, NBC, ABC, and Al Jazeera have all deployed television crews to cover Zefra and Daloon. Most major newspapers also have reporters there. Meanwhile Zefra and the White House reaction have been on the agenda of the Sunday morning talk shows for several weeks now. Most commentators are asking why the US is standing by in the face of such pain and suffering.

TOKEN Counter-threat Corporation

TOKEN is a private military company that has had a presence in both Zefra and Daloon for many years. With its headquarters in Macau, the top management of TOKEN have a merky relationship with political forces in Beijing.

Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) -- a Non-Governmental Organization

Many NGOs have a presence in Zefra, Daloon, or both. The mission of most of these is to relieve the suffering of civilians, e.g., refugees and internally displaced persons. The NGOs run hospitals and other medical facilities. Some NGOs also have sites where civilians can be provided safety, and food, water, and clothing.

One particularly well known NGO is Médecins Sans Frontières or "Doctors without Borders". MSF generally keeps an arms-length relationship with governments and military forces. The rationale is that MSF must be widely viewed as aloof from all sides of a conflict. If any side perceives MSF personnel to be favoring some other side, then they can become vulneable. MSF believes their staff will be safer if they show no bias towards any of the sides in the conflict.

Important Geographical Factors

Map of Geographical Factors

The map shows two nuclear reactor sites, refugee camps south of the Zefra-Daloon border, a military exclusion zone along the border patrolled by Daloon, new sources of scarce water, desalination plants along the coast, gas fields off the East coast of Daloon. The two air bases shown have small numbers of Chinese air force personnel (about 50 personnel each).